March 9, 2013

Kondenzovana gramatika - 40. dan engleskog !

Pre neki dan sam se oduševila kada mi je jedna učenica, redovan pratilac bloga i član VIP grupe, poslala svoje beleške na temu gramatičkih jedinica koje smo do sada uradili. Pošto mi je dala dozvolu da ih podelim sa vama, prosledjujem vam ih i nadam se da će vam biti od koristi:


GLAGOL "MUST" = moram (kada je to moje htenje) + INFINITIV (bez "to") "I must learn English." "I must buy this blouse."
GLAGOL "HAVE TO" = moram ( kada mi je nametnuto spolja), "I have to go to work." "She has to get up early."
GLAGOL "NEEDN`T" = ne moram. + INFINITIV (bez "to"), "You needn`t get up early." "I needn`t have lunch now."
GLAGOL "MUSTN`T" = ne smem   + INFINITIV ( bez "to"), "I mustn`t smoke at school."
BUDUCE VREME OD MODALNOG GLAGOLA 'MUST" JE: "WILL HAVE TO + infinitiv",  "He will have to wash his face." "Will you have to learn?"
PROSLO VREME OD "MUST" JE: "DID YOU HAVE TO?",  odnosno "HAD TO + infinitiv", "He had to sing." "Did you have to read that book?"
GLAGOL "CAN"


Can I have another room, please?
Can I have a banana, please?
Can I have some cheese, please?
Can I have an egg, please?
What can you do?
She can clean her house.

BUDUCE VREME OD MODALNOG GLAGOLA "CAN" JE : "WILL BE ABLE TO + infinitiv", "I will be able to ride that horse tomorrow." " I won`t be able to do my homework." "Will you be able to go for a walk next week?"
PROSLO VREME OD "CAN" JE: "COULD + infinitiv" i ovaj oblik se koristi za UOPSTENE CINJENICE, "I could swim when I was five." "She couldn’t get a job anywhere." "Could I get your email address?"
PROSLO VREME OD "CAN" kada pricamo o KONKRETNOJ SITUACIJI se gradi od PAST SIMPLE TENSE glagola "BE" + "ABLE TO + infinitiv", "I was able to swim yesterday." "I wasn`t able to sing because I had flu." "Were you able to watch movie last Sunday?"

COULD ("Could" je proslo vreme od "CAN")
I could swim when I was five.
I will be able to swim tomorrow.
I was able to swim yesterday.
Could I get your email address?
I could not swim when I was 5 years old.  
She couldn’t get a job anywhere.
You couldn’t use computers in the nineteenth century. 
PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE se upotrebljava:
1.za-iskazivanje radnje koja se ponavlja u odredjenim vremenskim intervalima i ide obicno sa prilozima za vreme: ALWAYS, SOMETIMES,USUALLY, RARELY, OFTEN, EVERY,  "I go to school every day." "Do you go to school every day?" "She does not go to school every day."
2.za-iskazivanje cinjenica i osecanja,  " I hate school! " " The Earth goes around the Sun."
3.za-iskazivanje buducnosti kada govorimo o ustaljenom rasporedu, na primer redu vožnje:  " When does the bus leave?"  " It leaves at 5.20pm. "
NEGATIVNI I UPITNI OBLIK SE GRADE SA POMOCNIM GLAGOLOM "DO" ( don`t, doesn`t, do, does ).
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE se upotrebljava:
1.za-da iskazemo da se radnja desava u trenutku govora, -"I'm washing the dishes." "Are you  washing the dishes?" "He is  not washing the dishes."
2.za-da iskazemo da se radnja desava u ovom periodu,  -I'm studying Medicine.
3.za-da iskazemo trend,  -The price of property is going up.
4.za-da iskazemo buducnost, kada označava dogovor i tada je sa obaveznim terminom -I'm meeting the boss tomorrow at 9am.-
GRADI SE SA sadasnjim vremenom glagola "TO BE" i glagola sa nastavkom"ING".
OVO VREME NE PODNOSE: 1.glagoli percepcije (see, hear, taste, feel, smell); 2.glagoli koji pokazuju mentalno stanje (believe, mean, know, think  - ima jos tu puno glagola); 3.glagoli koji pokazuju osecanja (love, hate, admire, like) i 4.glagoli posedovanja (have, own, belong) - SVE OVE GRUPE GLAGOLA NE MOGU DA DODJU U PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE ALI AKO DODJU MENJAJU ZNACENJE. U OSNOVNOM ZNACENJU SU UVEK U PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE.
primer promene značenja:
---TO THINK
a. I think he is fun = smatram da je zabavan
b. I'm thinking about him = razmišljam o njemu
---TO HAVE
a. I have a house = imam kuću
b. I'm having breakfast = doručkujem
--- TO SEE
a. I see you! = vidim te
b. I'm seeing you tomorrow at 5 = posetiću te sutra u 5

FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE se upotrebljava:
1.za-kada pricamo o cinjenicama u buducnosti,  "I'll go on holiday in the summer"  "Will you go on holiday in the summer?" "No, we won`t go on holiday in the summer."
2.za-opsta predvidjanja,   "People will live on the Moon."
3.za-kada donosimo odluku u trenutku govora - ZA MOLBE ili - ZA PONUDE,  "Will you close the window?" "Shall I close the window?"
4.za-obecanja.   "I promise I'll help you with this blog"
GRADI SE SA pomocnim glagolom "WILL" i infinitivom (bez "to") glagola koji hocemo.
GOING-TO FUTURE se upotrebljava:
1.za-predvidjanja na osnovu cinjenica,  (vidis oblake) "It's going to rain." "Is it going to rain?" "It is not going to rain."
2.za-namere. "After this lesson, I'm going to walk my dog".
GRADI SE SA sadasnjim vremenom glagola "TO BE" i sa "GOING-TO + infinitiv", posle cega ide glagol koji hocemo u infinitivu (bez "to").
PAST SIMPLE TENSE se upotrebljava:
1.da iskazemo radnju koja se desila i zavrsila u proslosti i ide sa prilozima za vreme: YESTERDAY   I saw him yesterday, LAST   I saw her last year, AGO  I read that book two years ago, ili jednostavno UZ DANE  I met Jane on Monday, DATUME  I visited him on 2nd February,  MESECE  I was at the seaside in August i GODINE "I went to Spain in 1999." "Did you go to Spain in 1999?" "We did not go to Spain in 1999."
GRADI SE SA GLAGOLOM U PROSLOSTI ( PRAVILNIH I NEPRAVILNIH GLAGOLA).
NEGATIVNI I UPITNI OBLIK SE GRADE SA proslim vremenom pomocnog glagola "DO" ( did, didn`t ).

5 comments:

marice4 said...

Sekoja cest za tebe Divna. Navistina si vlozila golem trud.Bravos

tanja67 said...

Sta god ta kazem bilo bi suvisno. Hvala za trud, Vi ste predivna zena velikog <3

Marija M. said...

Bravo Divna, cestitam na upornosti i volji za ucenjem. E kad bi smo svi bili tako marljivi.....Jos jednom, sve cestitke za tvoj rad.

Anonymous said...

Divna, u pitanju je opklada, pa mi je potrebna i strucna potvrda sledeceg:
Kada nesto moram da uradim a nije mi po volji... moram to uciniti, i niko me ne pita da li mi se to radi ili ne, moram to uciniti i tacka, da li se tada upotrebljava glagol "MUST" ili "HAVE TO"? Hvala unapred!

Marina said...

Ako je opklada u pitanju, onda stiže hitan odgovor: must se koristi za ono što osećamo da moramo da uradimo sami, a have to kao ono što moramo uraditi bez obzira na našu volju... vrlo slično našem "imam da završim neke poslove".